While Spielberg was making other films, the Schindler's script was proving no easier to crack than it had been two decades earlier. Keneally himself took the first pass, writing a 220-page tome that was more miniseries than movie. "In my draft, Schindler had relationships with a whole range of people," he says. "I didn't coalesce the stories enough."
Unhappy with Keneally's lack of focus, Spielberg next hired ex-journalist Kurt Luedtke, who had won an Oscar for Out of Africa. Luedtke labored for three and a half years before giving up, unable to conquer his own doubt about the heroism of Schindler, who had begun his Moses-like mission merely as a way to make a buck. "As a reporter," says Spielberg, "he had some journalistic conflicts about not believing the story."
Spielberg then handed the project to Scorsese. "I thought Marty would do a great job with it," explains Spielberg. "He wouldn't back down from truth or violence. But the minute I gave it to Marty, I missed it. I'd given away a chance to do something for my children and family about the Holocaust." So the two directors worked out a trade in which Spielberg handed Scorsese a project he'd been developingCape Fearand reclaimed Schindler's for himself.
Back on the film, Spielberg read the script Scorsese had commissioned from Zaillian. At 115 pages, it was strong but "too contained" and without enough Jewish faces, says Spielberg. "I didn't tell the story from the survivors' point of view," says Zaillian, "but from Schindler's. I wanted it clear that he didn't do what he did out of friendship. He didn't feel sorry for them. He did it because it was the right thing to do."
Spielberg kept asking Zaillian to add more material and treated him to a field trip to Poland for inspiration. "By the time we were done, we had 195 pages," says Zaillian, who originally penned the savage liquidation of the Jews in the Krakow ghettosome of the film's most brutal scenesat only two pages. Spielberg insisted on stretching the evacuation into a grueling episode that ultimately took three weeks to film. "He thought I had lost my mind," recalls Spielberg. "But really, I felt very strongly that the sequence had to be almost unwatchable."
While some critics have faulted Schindler's List for telling its tale from the Germans' point of view, Spielberg knew how he wanted to present the story. "I said, 'Look, I don't want to go all the way into The Diary of Anne Frank, where we're telling a detailed portraiture of a family in hiding. It wasn't the story of eight Jews from Krakow who survivedit was a conscious decision to represent the 6 million who died and the several hundred thousand who did survive with just sort of a scent of characters and faces we follow all through the story."
As he developed the script, Spielberg waged a quiet battle with Universal. The studio was concerned that he was making an apparently uncommercial project even more difficult. He knew he wanted to shoot the movie in documentary-style black and white with Polish emigre Janusz Kaminski (The Adventures of Huck Finn) as his director of photography. Universal chairman Tom Pollock begged Spielberg at least to shoot in color and then transfer to black and white, so the studio could eventually release color videocassettes. The director refused. "It would have looked like pink and white," he says.
Disputes over how to tell Schindler's story were just as intense. "The studio, of course, wanted me to spell everything out," says Spielberg. "I got into a lot of arguments with people saying we need that big Hollywood catharsis where Schindler falls to his knees and says, 'Yes, I know what I'm doingnow I must do it!' and goes full steam ahead. That was the last thing I wanted. I did not want to bring in a Camille moment, some kind of explosive catharsis that would turn this into The Great Escape."
Finally, MCA's Sheinberg gave Schindler's List the green light on one condition: Spielberg had to film Jurassic Park first. "He knew that once I had directed Schindler's I wouldn't be able to do Jurassic Park," says Spielberg. (He does plan to produce, but not direct, a Jurassic sequel.)
As casting began, Spielberg first focused on the character of Itzhak Stern, a composite of several of the men who ran Schindler's enamelware company while the boss pursued women and good relations with the Nazis. "Stern whispered in Schindler's ear," says Spielberg. "He's the unsung hero." The role went to Ben Kingsley, the Oscar winner for 1982's Gandhi and the biggest name in a non-American, nonstar lineup. As Nazi commandant Amon Goeth, the film's emblem of evil, Spielberg cast Ralph Fiennes (pronounced Rafe Fines), whom he had seen as Heathcliff in a little-seen remake of Wuthering Heights. South African actress Embeth Davidtz was handed the role of Helen Hirsch, the reluctant recipient of both Goeth's and Schindler's odd affections. Spielberg cast Israelis, many of them children of survivors, for the key Jewish speaking roles and used local Catholic Poles for the remaining Jewish faces.
While Spielberg had tested Irish actor Liam Neeson at the start of the casting process and had spurned interest from Kevin Costner and Mel Gibson, it wasn't until December 1992 that he firmed up his choice. After seeing Neeson on Broadway in Anna Christie, Spielberg went backstage with his wife, Kate Capshaw, and her mother. Overcome by the performance, Spielberg's mother-in-law met Neeson, who put a comforting arm around her. As they were leaving, Capshaw turned to Spielberg and said, "That's what Schindler would have done."
When the Schindler's company arrived in Krakow in February, the punishing Polish winter welcomed them with temperatures of 15 below. "Nobody complained about how we were suffering from the cold," says cinematographer Kaminski, 34, who hadn't returned to Poland since he left 12 years ago, "because our suffering was so little compared with what the actual prisoners were subjected to." But their reception was cold in other ways. A clash with the World Jewish Congress over Spielberg's request to film inside Auschwitz-Birkenau wasn't resolved until Spielberg proposed an ingenious compromise: A train would be backed into the camp and then be shot emerging into a mirror replica of Auschwitz's interior that had been built just outside the actual camp. And during their stay in Krakow, the filmmakers were welcomed with anti-Semitic symbols scrawled on local billboards. One night, Kingsley and a friend were unwinding at the bar in the Hotel Forum, a hangout for the cast and crew. "Good night, Jew," a middle-aged German businessman said to Kingsley's friend. Kingsley lost his temper, screaming at the man until crew members hustled the offender off the premises.
Meanwhile, Spielberg was fighting his own shooting schedule. Some days, he and Kaminski filmed as many as 55 setups, often with a handheld camera. Screenwriter Zaillian, a novice director who had just completed his first film, Searching for Bobby Fischer, recalls the process with amazement. "They were shooting fast, with a cool, unsentimental, matter-of-fact approach. On one shot, the camera pans over to catch something. The first three times it didn't quite catch the action completely." Spielberg simply decided to continue, imperfections and all. "Okay," he said, "let's move on to the next one."
"Actually," says Neeson, "Steven's direction on Schindler was a bit like Woody Allen. We didn't know how he was going to shoot a scene. You just had to be prepared in not being prepared." In fact, many of the film's most important shots were mapped out at the last minute. Just before filming the pivotal scene in which Schindler persuades Goeth to let him remove 1,100 of his prisoners to safety, Spielberg shouted to Neeson, "I know how to do it! You're going to be outside, and I'm going to be inside with the camera on you, and I'm gonna just keep the camera steady and you walk into the shot and walk out again. The scene is so important I'm going to throw it away."
"He wanted it to not be perfect," says Zaillian. "It was a catch-what-you-can style of filming, which is just as hard to do as to plan out every shot."
If the crowning achievement of Schindler's List is its authenticity, credit may belong to the Schindler Jews who offered their own experiences to the filmmakers. Page, who accompanied the cast and crew, recalled masquerading as a recruit when he realized that the Germans were shooting every Jew they caught hiding during the Krakow ghetto annihilation: "I told them I had been ordered to clear the road. They started to laugh. An order is an order. They had time to kill me later. I was among the last 40 to get out of the ghetto alive."
Among the other survivors who lent their memories was Nuisa Horowitz, who as an 11-year-old factory worker was kissed by Schindleran offense that briefly landed him in jail. Horowitz's story became the basis of a scene in which a family presses its diamonds into bread and then eats them during the liquidation of the ghetto. And Page pointed out the actual bluff from which Schindler, on horseback, watched the SS officers attack the ghetto. "There's only one place that Schindler could have parked his horse to watch," Spielberg says with visible enthusiasm. "A lot of it I just got from witnesses who came back: 'Oh, this didn't happen over here, this happened over there!'"
Another survivor told of the Plaszow prisoners pricking their own fingers and coloring their cheeks with blood during a horrifying endurance test in which prisoners were forced to run naked to prove their healthand sent to death camps if they were judged too sickly to work. Spielberg pushed verisimilitude to an obsessive level when he asked for volunteers to prick their fingers; two agreed to do it. For the health sequence, he paid all the extras who were required to run naked double the California-extra day rate of $65more than the average monthly salary in Krakow.
To give the audience one last dose of realism, Spielberg decided to fly 128 surviving Schindlerjuden to Jerusalem to appear in the film's final sequence, in which, following Jewish tradition, they place stones on Schindler's grave. Since the idea for the sequence came to Spielberg midway through filming, his production team scrambled to import the survivors.
The night before Spielberg filmed the coda, the actors met their real-life counterparts at a party at the King David Hotel. "We had such a time that night," says Neeson. "It was wonderful to hear all these anecdotes from all these people, little gems of stories about what somebody did for somebody one day, nothing horrific." Former prisoner Henry Rosner, who had once played his violin at Goeth's villa, played once again, and Spielberg sat surrounded by Holocaust survivors. "He was so exhausted he wasn't sure he'd get through the evening," says Caroline Goodall, who plays Schindler's wife. "But I've never seen him look so happy."